Use this strategy to help students connect new ideas and information to their prior knowledge about a particular topic. The protocol described here engages students in metacognitive reflection by asking them to identify ideas and pieces of information that are consistent with their prior understanding of a topic, those that cause them to revise their thinking, and those that are confusing. This process helps students both deepen their understanding of a topic and become more thoughtful and independent learners.
This strategy works best after students have already been introduced to an idea or topic and are receiving new information or perspectives that might challenge their initial understanding.1
Provide students with copies of the source for this activity, and then give them time to read or view the source. You might have students read the source multiple times, once together as a class and again independently. Then prompt students to go back to the source one more time and respond to the following three questions. You can also distribute the accompanying handout, Connect, Extend, Challenge Chart, and have students write their answers to the questions there.
Connect: How do the ideas and information in this reading connect to what you already know about ______________?
Extend: How does this reading extend or broaden your thinking about ______________?
Challenge: Does this reading challenge or complicate your understanding of ______________? What new questions does it raise for you?
After students have completed their responses, you might debrief the activity with paired or whole-group discussions to reinforce both students’ understanding of the content and their reflections on the learning process.
Students consider the power of historical symbols as they investigate the 2015 controversy over the Confederate flag in South Carolina and then draw connections to the violence in Charlottesville.