Vitka Kempner was 19 years old when she made the choice to resist the Nazis. She fled to the city of Vilna and then was sent to the Vilna Ghetto, where she joined other youth to become a founding member of the United Partisan Organization (FPO).
In an interview for the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation, she describes the tensions between young Jewish partisans in Vilna and older members of the community.
But of all the underground movements in the ghettos, nobody did anything until the last moment. Because no one of us wanted, that because of some carelessness on our side, other Jews would get killed. We were young, and the claim against us from many people inside the ghetto was, You are irresponsible young people, because of you all the Jews will get killed. . . .
The Jews organized against the FPO, and even parents of our comrades were against us and said that because of a group of hotheads, all the ghetto will be destroyed. We understood that there would be no possibility to fight only in the ghetto. And we decided to take groups out into the forest.1
Students will apply the lessons they have learned about the intersecting histories of wartime North Africa and the Holocaust as they create an artifact that explains the context of the found poems they wrote in Lesson 3.
Indigenous Rights and Controversy over Hawaii’s Maunakea Telescope
Provide students with historical context for understanding the protests against the Thirty Meter Telescope on Maunakea and help them explore the reasons why many Native Hawaiians oppose its construction.