Discussing Contemporary Islamophobia in the Classroom | Facing History & Ourselves
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Discussing Contemporary Islamophobia in the Classroom

This unit is designed to help students in the UK reflect on how Islamophobia manifests in contemporary society and what needs to be done to challenge it.


This resource is intended for educators in the United Kingdom.

At a Glance

unit copy


English — UK


Three or more 50-min class periods
  • Culture & Identity
  • Democracy & Civic Engagement
  • Equity & Inclusion
  • Human & Civil Rights
  • Global Migration & Immigration
  • Racism
  • Propaganda
  • Resistance


About This Unit

This unit is designed to help teachers have conversations with their students about contemporary Islamophobia in a safe, sensitive and constructive way. Use these lessons to help your students reflect on Islamophobia – how it manifests in contemporary society and its impact – and consider what needs to be done to challenge it.

The global Muslim community is diverse and broad: Islam has been around for over 1,400 years and a quarter of the global population is Muslim. 1 There are Muslims living in countries all over the world, 2 who have different heritages, identities, skin colour, and professions, as well as different relationships to religion. Yet, despite this diversity, Muslims are often treated as a homogenous and culturally inferior block, and are discriminated against, ostracised and attacked, just for being Muslim (those perceived to be Muslim are also on the receiving end of oppressive treatment). Muslims also regularly have their achievements, and their influence on European thought and culture overlooked. Pioneering Muslim figures translated classical texts rendering them accessible to Europeans; 3 invented algebra; founded the world’s first degree-granting university; created the first flying contraption; and produced the first surgical guidebooks, which were in use for 500 years in Europe. 4 Yet these contributions, among many others, are often ignored completely or pushed to the margins of history, with Muslims being depicted as a separate and culturally incompatible ‘other’.

This hatred of and hostility towards Muslims, which in the present day is known as Islamophobia, has evolved across the centuries, retaining relevance in the face of shifting world views, geopolitics, anxieties and social customs. At its root, Islamophobia relies on the idea that certain physical, intellectual, moral and cultural differences exist between Muslims and those living in the West, 5 and that these differences are immutable and threaten the identity, social cohesion and national security of Western liberal democracies. These negative perceptions of Muslims are borne both of the racialisation of Muslims, and of religious ignorance and prejudice, and are the legacies of the Crusades and colonialism, which asserted the superiority of white, Christian Europeans over those with different skin colours, cultures and religions. 

In the past decade, there has been a rise in the level of Islamophobic incidents recorded in the UK 6 and across the world. 7 These have included state-led acts of violence – as is seen by the treatment of the Uyghurs in China, the Rohingya in Myanmar and Muslims in India – and street-level abuse, 8 the desecration of graves 9 and attacks on Muslim buildings. 10 This increase in Islamophobia is due to a range of factors: the rise of populism, nationalism, anti-immigrant policies, 11 the far-right 12 and discriminatory rhetoric by politicians; 13 the widespread use of the Internet and social media which allow Islamophobes to expose large audiences to conspiracy theories scapegoating Muslims; 14 the media 15 and entertainment industry’s 16 long-standing, demonising depiction of Muslims; and spikes in conflict between Israel and Palestine. 17 The securitisation of Islam, 18 which has led to discriminatory counter-terrorism policies, further fans the flames of Islamophobia by suggesting that Muslims are to be feared. 19 These manifestations of Islamophobia, along with others, are rooted in the idea of a homogenous Muslim ‘other’ whose customs and values are incompatible with Western society. In the UK, one of the consequences of this widespread ‘othering’ is that Muslims feel unsafe and ostracised in their own home country, and are attacked just for being Muslim.

Islamophobia can be a difficult topic to discuss in the classroom: it is hugely complex, given its connection to religious hatred and racism, and has such a long history that Islamophobic attitudes have shaped modern perceptions about belonging in ways that are difficult to grasp. Islamophobia is acts of discrimination and hatred towards Muslims rooted in racism, but it is also religious prejudice. These two sides to Islamophobia reinforce each other, and shape the way that people respond to Muslims. 

Helping students grasp the complexities of Islamophobia, its history and how it exists in the present day is vital if it is to be challenged. Not challenging Islamophobia has disastrous impacts not only for Muslims, who risk being attacked, but also for other marginalised groups as it normalises oppression. Left unchecked, Islamophobia can also risk the health of and cohesion of society. 

As highlighted in the All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims’ report Islamophobia Defined,

It is not just British Muslims who are impacted by Islamophobia. It is British society at large who, by virtue of normalised prejudice against Muslim beliefs and practice, come to imbibe a panoply of falsehoods or misrepresentations and, consequentially, discriminatory outlooks to the detriment of social harmony and social inclusion. 20

Use this unit to help students understand what Islamophobia is, how it manifests in contemporary society and its impact, and explore their role in standing up against this form of bigotry. The lessons will guide students through these fundamental questions: 

  1. What is Islamophobia, how does it manifest in the world today and what is its impact?
  2. What is the history of Islamophobia and Islamophobic tropes, and how have they evolved to retain relevance in the present day?
  3. How is Islamophobia spread in the media and in the entertainment industry?
  4. What is gendered Islamophobia and how does it impact the treatment of Muslim women? 
  5. How can we stand up against contemporary Islamophobia? 

We recommend that, if possible, you teach all of the lessons in the designated order. However, if you do not have time to do so, we have outlined approaches that you can take below.

This unit supports a multiple-day exploration of contemporary Islamophobia and includes:

  • 5 lessons complete with resources 
  • Classroom-ready PowerPoints for each lesson

Preparing to Teach

A Note to Teachers

Before teaching this unit, please review the following information to help guide your preparation process.

We recommend that, if possible, you teach all of the lessons in the designated order. However, if you do not have time to do so, please ensure that you teach at least Lesson 1: Confronting Islamophobia and Lesson 2: Exploring Islamophobic Tropes. Lesson 3: Addressing Islamophobia in the Media, Lesson 4: Understanding Gendered Islamophobia and Lesson 5: Standing Up Against Contemporary Islamophobia are each split into two 50-minute parts. If time is limited, then, for Lessons Three and Four teach the first part of each lesson, and for Lesson Five, teach the second part of the lesson. Regardless of how many lessons you are able to teach, please read the unit in its entirety and review all of the content, so that you understand the context and are making informed decisions on which lessons to use.

Discussing sensitive issues with your students can be challenging and requires first building a foundation of trust and shared norms with your class. We recommend you use our guide Fostering Civil Discourse: A Guide for Classroom Conversations to help you prepare your class to engage meaningfully in this topic. 

While teaching this unit, it is also important to be mindful of the fact that there might be Muslim students, and other students for whom this topic might have personal relevance, in your classroom, who might find this topic difficult to discuss. Ensure you are not calling unwanted attention to Muslim students, invite everyone to contribute ideas, and ask all students to do so sensitively and be conscious of the impact their words can have on others in the classroom. You might also wish to give students the opportunity to share any thoughts on the topic with you personally, either out of class time or in the form of an Exit Card.

When there is a resurgence in conflict in Israel-Palestine, there is a spike in Islamophobic (and antisemitic) incidents. If your students want to, or would benefit from discussing this conflict in further depth, please see our suggested approaches on Discussing the Israel-Palestine Conflict in the Classroom.

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Lesson Plans

Materials and Downloads

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This unit overview gives you a brief summary of all of the lessons in the unit and lists the materials needed alongside the main activities.

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