At a Glance
LanguageEnglish — US
- English & Language Arts
- Social Studies
About This Teaching Strategy
A Chunking activity involves breaking down a difficult text into more manageable pieces and having students rewrite these “chunks” in their own words. You can use this strategy with challenging texts of any length. Chunking helps students identify key words and ideas, develops their ability to paraphrase, and makes it easier for them to organize and synthesize information.
Steps for Implementation
Chunking can be used with challenging texts of any length. A paragraph can be chunked into phrases and sentences, while a reading of several pages can be chunked into paragraphs or sections. It is often helpful to have students record information about each “chunk” in a graphic organizer, which you may want to prepare in advance.
Before having students work on paraphrasing the text, it is helpful to go over specific decoding strategies. You may want to post the following “reading reminders” on the board:
- Circle words that are unfamiliar.
- Use context clues to help define these words.
- Look up the meaning of unknown words.
- Write synonyms for these new words in the text.
- Underline important places and people and identify them.
- Read aloud.
- Read multiple times.
“Chunking the text” simply means breaking the text down into smaller parts. Sometimes teachers chunk the text in advance for students, especially if this is the first time students have used this strategy. Other times, teachers ask students to chunk the text. Students can work on chunking texts with partners or on their own. Depending on students’ reading level, the lengths of chunks can vary. A struggling reader may work with phrases rather than sentences. A stronger reader can often work with longer chunks.
Students should rewrite “chunks” in their own words. By the end of this activity, students should have a paraphrased version of the original text.
The paraphrased text can be used to evaluate students’ understanding and reading ability. You can also have students compare their versions of the text. This step often leads to interesting discussions about interpretation – how people can often find different meaning in the same words.
To help students move from reading the text to paraphrasing, ask them to first identify and define the key words found in that chunk. You can add a space on a graphic organizer for this step.
To improve comprehension and retention of ideas, have students visually represent the selected chunk as a picture or symbol. They can create the symbol or image, or they can find one in a magazine or online.
To help students clarify main ideas, ask them to summarize the meaning of a paragraph in ten words or less.
After students summarize a portion of the text, ask them to respond to these ideas. Questions you might use to prompt their thinking include: What do these ideas remind you of? What questions do they raise? Why is this idea important? To whom?
You can divide a longer text into sections and have small groups work on summarizing a paragraph or two each. Groups can share the meaning of their section with the rest of the class by using the Jigsaw strategy or by having small-group presentations. This variation works well with a text that has clearly divided parts, such as the Bill of Rights, because students need to be able to paraphrase their section without having read prior sections.
How are you planning to use this resource?Tell Us More
You might also be interested in…
Media and Strategies for Teaching Enrique’s Journey
Learning to Infer
Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies Links
Media and Strategies for Teaching Farewell to Manzanar
Activities for the First Days of School
Back to School: Building Community for Connection and Learning
Connect, Extend, Challenge
Connect, Extend, Challenge
Toolbox for Care
Connecting the Past to the Present Using Oral History
Reimagining School after COVID
Unlimited Access to Learning. More Added Every Month.
Facing History & Ourselves is designed for educators who want to help students explore identity, think critically, grow emotionally, act ethically, and participate in civic life. It’s hard work, so we’ve developed some go-to professional learning opportunities to help you along the way.
Exploring ELA Text Selection with Julia Torres
Working for Justice, Equity and Civic Agency in Our Schools: A Conversation with Clint Smith
Centering Student Voices to Build Community and Agency