Close Reading Teaching Strategy
Students in classroom reading books
Teaching Strategy

Close Reading Protocol

Ensure students’ reading comprehension by emphasizing a purposeful reading and rereading of a text.


At a Glance

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Teaching Strategy


English — US


  • English & Language Arts
  • History
  • Social Studies




What Is Close Reading?

The Close Reading Protocol strategy asks students to carefully and purposefully read and reread a text. When students “close read,” they focus on what the author has to say, what the author’s purpose is, what the words mean, and what the structure of the text tells us. This approach ensures that students really understand what they’ve read. We ask students to carefully investigate a text in order to make connections to essential questions about history, human behavior, and ourselves. Skillful close reading is also an important foundation for helping students develop the ability to justify their claims in class discussions and writing assignments with specific evidence. A typical close reading activity uses some or all of the steps in the procedure below.

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Lesson Plans

How to Use Close Reading

You or a confident student reader can read the text aloud. Students should follow along with the reading. Ask students to circle unfamiliar words as they listen. After the read-aloud, as students share these words with the class, decide which words to define immediately to limit confusion and which definitions you want students to uncover through careful reading.

Ask students to read silently and note specific words or phrases that jump out at them for any number of reasons: because they are interesting, familiar, strange, confusing, funny, troubling, difficult, etc. Share some of these as a class. Particular questions to ask students at this stage of the reading are:

  • What can you already infer about the author of this text?
  • How is the text structured?
  • Does this structure make it easy or difficult to make meaning?
  • Does this structure tell us anything about the author’s style or purpose?

In small groups, have students read the text in chunks and answer a set of text-dependent questions. Text-dependent questions are those that can be answered based only on careful analysis of the text itself.

In small groups, have students create a visual image on paper that captures the essence of the text. You may also want students to include a three-word or one-sentence summary of each section of text. Groups can be assigned either the entire text or sections of text for this portion of the close read.

Ask students to do a gallery walk of the images that have been created.

At this point, we recommend organizing a class discussion so that students can make connections beyond the text. This discussion can be informal or can use the format of the Socratic Seminar or Save the Last Word for Me strategies.

Teacher Note

You can prepare some questions, use the essential questions from the classroom, or have students themselves create the questions for a discussion. To do this, you might guide the students by asking them to find connections between the essential questions and the text or to write questions based on what resonates with them.

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Facing History & Ourselves is designed for educators who want to help students explore identity, think critically, grow emotionally, act ethically, and participate in civic life. It’s hard work, so we’ve developed some go-to professional learning opportunities to help you along the way.

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