Last Updated August 26, 2019
The number of people apprehended crossing the border from Mexico to the United States was higher in May 2019 than any other time since 2006.1 In previous years, most migrants who entered the United States from Mexico were single men, but during the summer of 2019, more than half of the migrants apprehended crossing the border were families and unaccompanied children.2 Most of these migrants fled violence in Central American countries and are asking for asylum in the United States. Thousands more asylum seekers are waiting in Mexico to cross into the United States at official border crossings.3
This Teaching Idea focuses on asylum seekers, who make up a large portion of the migrants seeking to enter the United States along the US–Mexico border. Through this Teaching Idea, students will learn about how the asylum process works in the United States and also consider the question: Who has an obligation to help asylum seekers?
Exploring the reasons why people migrate can help students better understand the ethical and political reactions to migrants. You can use our Teaching Idea Why Do People Migrate? to learn more about both the immediate and underlying causes of migration.
The asylum process in the United States is a complex system. Gaining a greater understanding of how it works can help students better grasp current events around immigration. If your students would benefit from getting clarification on migration-related terms, such as the term asylum seekers, begin by sharing our Migration Explainer.
Then, use the Parts, Purposes, and Complexities4 thinking routine to help your students explore how the asylum process in the United States works.
Introduce the thinking routine by telling students that they will be brainstorming answers to the following questions:
You can review a selection of the following resources with your students to provide them with the background information they need to begin answering the questions above.
Place students into groups to brainstorm answers to the Parts, Purposes, and Complexity questions. Students may find it helpful to start with the question about parts and then bring in the second two questions. They may also find it helpful to answer the questions by drawing diagrams or creating other visuals.
Finally, debrief as a class about what students learned through this activity by asking them:
Note: This activity uses the concept of “universe of obligation,” which is a helpful concept in analyzing the choices both governments and individuals make about what groups of people they are most likely to protect. Sociologist Helen Fein coined this term to describe the circle of individuals and groups within a society “toward whom obligations are owed, to whom rules apply, and whose injuries call for amends.”5 If you or your students are not familiar with the concept, we recommend taking the time to introduce it with the lesson Understanding the Universe of Obligation, before continuing with this activity.
Our global system assumes that every person will fit into their own nation’s universe of obligation. However, that is not always the case. Those individuals or groups who fall outside a nation’s universe of obligation become vulnerable—not only to being deprived of the rights, privileges, and economic benefits afforded to citizens—but also to expulsion, physical harm, and, in the most extreme cases, genocide (as Helen Fein warned when she articulated this concept). Asylum seekers are claiming that their own countries have withdrawn protection from them, which raises the question, what should happen to people who are excluded from their own country’s universe of obligation?
Ask your students:
Who should be obligated to help asylum seekers if they have been excluded from their own country’s universe of obligation?
Before answering this question, students can discuss the following questions to generate ideas about what is possible: