Bertha Pappenheim (1859-1936)

Bertha Pappenheim came from a middle class Jewish family. She was a leader in championing the cause of German women and was the head of the Judisches Frauenbund (Federation of Jewish Women). As a Jew, a woman, and a pacifist Bertha faced enormous obstacles in trying to promote her ideas of legal equality, economic opportunity, reproductive freedom and international peace within Weimar Germany. Facing her own personal demons she was for a number of years the well-reported patient of Sigmund Freud whose case he presented under the name Anna O. She died before she could become a victim of the Nazis.

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A portrait of Bertha Pappenheim.

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