Elizabeth Englander is a professor of Psychology at Bridgewater State University in Massachusetts. She is also the founder and director of the Massachusetts Aggression Reduction Center (MARC) at Bridgewater State University.
Facing History has a range of resources on Japanese and Japanese American incarceration (often referred to as "Japanese internment") during World War II that you can use to accompany the Righting a Wrong poster exhibition.
This section focuses on France, where Islam—the religion of many North African immigrants and their French sons and daughters—has become the subject of many public discussions. In particular, we will examine the recent debate over headscarves in French state-run schools. This discussion, while involving particular dynamics and histories, echoes larger global conversations about religion, identity and integration and reveals varying understandings of what different social groups and societies need to do to integrate people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds.
Facing History and Ourselves has curated a collection of readings, written by staff members and scholars, that touch on the echoes of the letter exchange between George Washington and the Hebrew congregation of Newport. These readings address issues of religion, difference, and identity, and suggest that reflecting on these issues is just as important today as it was in 1790.
Administrators and school officials also face a tremendous challenge as they try to create safe spaces within their schools. The first video below features a school administrator addressing a bullying incident after the fact.
When does a simple disagreement between students turn into an act of bullying? How do we recognize this shift? What can we do when this happens? These are just some of the questions that educators have about tackling the subject of bullying in a classroom environment.
The Ostracism Case Study has been used in a variety of different settings with different audiences. It provides a structure for rich discussions on bullying and ostracism, regardless of whether the audience is comprised of teachers, students, administrators, parents, or a combination of groups.
Jenny Bender Berz holds a Master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a Doctorate in Clinical Psychology from the University of Massachusetts Boston. She has worked in the fields of education and psychology since 1992. From 1996 to 1998, she worked with Dennis Barr at Facing History and Ourselves to research what later became the Ostracism Incident. Currently, Jenny practices psychotherapy at the Brookline Community Mental Health Center, where she also directs the Connecting with Families parent education program. In addition, Jenny has a private psychotherapy practice and enjoys family life with her husband and two children.
The letter exchange between George Washington and the Hebrew congregation of Newport was not the only landmark event in the early history of America that dealt with issues of religious freedom and identity. Seixas’ letter and Washington’s subsequent response exist within a timeline of many other events during which the newly formed country faced those issues. Continue reading below for information about some of those events.