Estelle Ishigo, a Caucasian women artist, was voluntarily interned with 110,000 Japanese Americans in internment camps in 1942. There, she recorded the deprivations and rigors of camp life with unusual insight.
As the 1874 campaign for governor and state legislature began in Alabama, the Pike County Democratic Party’s platform gave supporters this guidance for how to treat white Republicans.
State Senator Charles Caldwell was a former slave who had led a company of African American soldiers, earlier in 1875, in a state militia formed to protect freedpeople from the White Line. The militia was later disbanded by the governor as part of a “peace agreement” with the White Line, but attacks and intimidation continued, and Caldwell himself was assassinated later that year. Eugene Welborne, who served as Caldwell’s first lieutenant in the militia, gave this account of election day in November 1875 in Clinton, Mississippi, and Caldwell’s efforts to ensure a fair vote.