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Read a telegram exchange between Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and Tsar Nicholas of Russia in which the leaders attempt to prevent World War I.
Learn about psychologist Stanley Milgram’s experiments on obedience and the insight they offer into the motives of Nazi perpetrators.
Gain insight into the devastating poverty, unemployment, and hopelessness experienced by Germans during the Great Depression.
Learn about the non-aggression pact forged by Hitler and Stalin in 1939, the pact’s secret clauses, and the role of propaganda.
Consider how nations around the world responded to the Jewish refugee crisis created by Nazi Germany's annexation of Austria.
Learn about the memo that urged President Roosevelt to step up US efforts to rescue Jews from the Nazis, and led him to establish the War Refugee Board.
Survivors of the ghetto-camp Terezin share stories about their underground publication Vedem and other acts of spiritual resistance.
Hanna Lévy-Hass, a Jewish woman from Yugoslavia, describes her treacherous journey between camps as Germany retreated from Eastern Europe.
Consider a Swiss merchant’s account of how his German colleagues responded to the events of Kristallnacht (Spanish available).
Consider the unique experiences of black South African women during apartheid, many of whom were forced to live far away from their husbands on bantustans.
This list of tips for “the occupied” distributed by a French citizen during World War II provides a window into what it was like to live in a Nazi-occupied country.
Explore the responses by leaders of the African National Congress to the new Union of South Africa government’s racially motivated Native Lands Act of 1913.