This map of the Middle East shows the area presently inhabited by the Kurds. At the end of World War I, the Kurds were promised their own independent homeland under the Treaty of Sèvres. The treaty was never ratified, and the Kurds were divided mainly between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria.
Who can be a citizen? Many countries recognize birthright citizenship, meaning that anyone born within a country's territory is automatically a citizen, even if the parents are not citizens. See full-sized image for analysis.
At the Congress of Berlin in 1884, 15 European powers divided Africa among them. By 1914, these imperial powers had fully colonized the continent, exploiting its people and resources. See full-sized image for analysis.
The beginning of the Nanjing Atrocities occurred with the Imperial Japanese Army’s occupation of the then capital city of China, Nanjing. These images capture the early days of the military occupation as well as offer a geographic orientation to the city confines.