Anti-Jewish Measures in The Netherlands and Belgium between 1940 and 1944

Chart comparing anti-Jewish measures in the Netherlands and Belgium between October 1940 and July 1944


Date Netherlands Belgium
     
October 1940 Ban on ritual (kosher) slaughter Ban on ritual (kosher) slaughter
Removal of Jews from government employment (teachers, professors) Dismissal of Jews from government employment (teachers, professors); Jews cannot be lawyers or journalists
Confiscation of radios Implementation of 1935 Nuremberg Law definition to determine who was to be considered Jewish
Jews are banned from recreational facilities, hotels, restaurants Identification of hotels, restaurants owned by Jews
Jews must register with Dutch authorities by the deadline of January 1941 Registration of Jews with Belgian authorities
  Identification cards of Jews specially marked
  Registration of all Jewish businesses
May 1941   Jews must register all real property, disposal of real property is subject to German approval, money from sales must be deposited in special bank accounts.
  Jews are banned from management jobs in businesses
  Radio sets are confiscated from Jews
June 1941 300 Jewish men deported to Mauthausen in retaliation for bomb attack.  
Fall 1941 170 Jewish men from provinces are deported to Mauthausen.  
August 1941   Jews have residential curfew from 8 p.m. to 7.a.m.
September 1941 Central Agency for Jewish Emigration established in Amsterdam and the Hague [Zentralstelle]  
Jewish students are excluded from public schools  
November 1941   Jewish organization, Association des Juifs en Belgique [AJB] established, headed by Grand Rabbi Solomon Ullman
End of 1941   Jewish students may no longer attend public schools
Early 1942   Jewish physicians may no longer treat non-Jewish patients
April 1942 Jews must wear the Star of David on clothing when in public  
Jews must deposit their money in designated banks under German control (blocked accounts) and are restricted on number and size of withdrawal  
Jews must register real property with authorities and then sell  
Dutch employers are authorized to fire Jewish employees at their discretion  
Jews are barred from certain professions  
May 1942   Jews are required to wear the Star of David on clothing in public
June 1942 Jews are required to turn in bicycles  
Jews are forbidden to ride on public transportation such has streetcars  
Jews have residential curfew from 8 p.m. to 6 a.m.  
July 1942 First deportation notices are sent to Jewish residents in Amsterdam, requiring reporting to Zenstralstelle or Hollandsche Schouwberg (Jewish Theatre) collection centers; Jews are then deported to Westerbork transit camp German police have AJB distribute 5,000 notices for Jews to report to Caserne Dossin in Malines, no children or elderly. 1
August 15-September 12, 1942   Belgian Jews are not voluntarily showing up; so there are 4 major raids: 4,000 Jews are arrested; Belgian response: protest. German reaction: stop the roundups
October 1942 to end of occupation   German policy was to round up Jews where located; paid bounty for denunciation of Jews in hiding; about 8,000 Jews were captured in this manner 2
October 1942-- March/April 1943 Deportaiton of Jews from other large Dutch cities and provinces, again sent to Westerbork transit camp  
May 1943 Remaining Jews in Amsterdam, about 10,000, are rounded up for deportation  
September 1943 to end of occupation Remaining Jews in Amsterdam, about 10,000, are rounded up for deportation  
July 1944   4,000 protected Jews in Brussels (AJB members plus larger number in hiding); when military administration is replaced by civilian administration, scheduled roundups and deportations; train scheduled for departure August 1944 but never left Belgium 3 

 

  1. Citations

    • 1 Currently site of new Belgian Holocaust Museum.
    • 2 including Flinkers, turned in by Jack, an informer
    • 3 This chart was compiled by Bonnie Sussman, using The Holocaust Encyclopedia (2001), New Haven and London: Yale University Press,  pp. 55-60,  pp 437-443.
Topic:
Holocaust
Place:
Belgium
Netherlands

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