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Learn about the concordat that Hitler and the Catholic Church signed in 1933, and the compromises and gains involved for both parties.
Deepen your understanding of the history of antisemitism with this overview of the persecution, violence, and restrictions Jews throughout Europe faced during the Middle Ages.
Consider Ernst Toller, Sigmund Freud, and Arnold Schoenberg’s reactions to the growing antisemitism in Germany in the 1920s.
Discover how the Nazis used art as a tool to promote their ideology by celebrating what they perceived as authentic German art and eliminating art they deemed degenerate.
Eisenhower, a general during World War II, describes his shock and horror at touring a Nazi concentration camp liberated by US troops.
Learn about the pamphlet published by Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche that sparked a national debate about race and eugenics in Germany in the 1920s.
Read eyewitness accounts of the killing process at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi death camp.
Bertha Pappenheim recounts the antisemitic abuse that she witnessed in Germany in 1923.
Former Nazi youth member Alfons Heck reflects on coming to terms with Germany’s role and his own part in the Holocaust.
Consider why some Europeans changed their anti-war stance when World War I officially began, and why others like conscientious objectors continued to oppose the war.
Learn about some of the challenges delegates faced in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.