The 15-minute film module, Law or War: The Creation of the International Criminal Court (below), explores the creation of the first permanent international court in history created to investigate and prosecute individual perpetrators, no matter how powerful, for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. When the court was established in 2002, the idea of international criminal justice was still relatively new. As long ago as 1899, 26 nations convened for an International Peace Conference, where they drafted the Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land, one of the first formal statements of international laws related to war and war crimes. Nearly 50 years later, it took the atrocity of the Nazi Holocaust to bring the international community together to hold perpetrators responsible for war crimes. The prosecution of Nazi leaders at the Nuremberg Tribunals marks the first time that an international criminal court was established. This tribunal set a precedent for the creation of later temporary tribunals, such as the tribunals for perpetrators of genocide in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia.
In the hope of deterring future crimes, representatives from a wide range of nations met under the auspices of the United Nations to craft a draft treaty for a permanent international criminal court. That draft was formally presented at a 1998 conference in Rome, now known as the Rome Conference. A total of 120 national representatives voted for the treaty, but the Court could only become operational after a minimum of 60 nations ratified the treaty through their state legislatures—a goal that was accomplished in 2002. As the International Criminal Court (ICC) began investigating its first cases in 2004, the international community has had to confront difficult decisions about how to balance important, yet often competing, values of justice, peace, and sovereignty.