About This Lesson
In the previous lesson, students began the first stage of the Facing History & Ourselves scope and sequence, ‘Individual and Society’, by considering the complexity of answering the question ‘Who am I?’ In this lesson, students will continue to explore the relationship between individual and society by examining how we so often believe ‘single stories’ and stereotypes about groups of people. The activities that follow ask students to reflect on the basic human behaviour of applying categories to the people and things we meet, and to think about the circumstances in which ‘single stories’ about others can be harmful or even dangerous.
What does learning about the choices people made during the Weimar Republic, the rise of the Nazi Party, and the Holocaust teach us about the power and impact of our choices today?
In what ways do ‘single stories’ impact our own identities, how we view others, and the choices we make?
Students will recognise that it is a natural and common human behaviour to group the people and things we encounter in the world into categories, but that sometimes these categories become ‘single stories’ that give us incomplete and simplistic understandings of the identities of others.
This lesson is designed to fit into one 50-minute class period and includes:
- 6 activities
- 1 PowerPoint
- 1 reading
- 1 video
- 1 extension activity
We know that every person is different from any other in countless ways, yet when we encounter others, we often rely on generalisations to describe them. ‘It's a natural tendency,’ says psychologist Deborah Tannen.
We must see the world in patterns in order to make sense of it; we wouldn’t be able to deal with the daily onslaught of people and objects if we couldn’t predict a lot about them and feel that we know who and what they are. But this natural and useful ability to see patterns of similarity has unfortunate consequences. It is offensive to reduce an individual to a category, and it is also misleading. 1
Author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie uses the phrase ‘single stories’ to describe the overly simplistic and sometimes false perceptions we form about individuals, groups, or countries. Her novels and short stories complicate the single stories many people believe about Nigeria, the country where she is from.
In a speech excerpted in this lesson, Adichie recounts her experiences as the subject of the ‘single stories’ others have created about groups to which she belongs, as well as times when she herself has created single stories about others. She says:
I've always felt that it is impossible to engage properly with a place or a person without engaging with all of the stories of that place and that person. The consequence of the single story is this: It robs people of dignity. It makes our recognition of our equal humanity difficult. It emphasises how we are different rather than how we are similar...
The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story. 2
Adichie’s speech provides a framework for discussing stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination with your students.
- A stereotype is a belief about an individual based on the real or imagined characteristics of a group to which that individual belongs. Stereotypes can lead us to judge an individual or group negatively. Even stereotypes that seem to portray a group positively reduce individuals to categories and tell an incomplete or inaccurate ‘single story’.
- Prejudice occurs when we form an opinion about an individual or a group based on a negative stereotype.
- When a prejudice leads us to treat an individual or group negatively, discrimination occurs.
It is important to reflect on the relationship explored in this lesson between the ways that we think about others and the ways that we treat others. Investigating the connections between stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination will provide an important framework for considering in this and future lessons the ways that people create ‘in’ groups and ‘out’ groups, both in our everyday lives and throughout history.
- 1 D. Tannen, You Just Don’t Understand: Men and Women in Conversation (New York: Morrow, 1990), 16.
- 2C. N. Adichie, ‘The Danger of a Single Story’, TED video (filmed July 2009, posted October 2009), 18:46, accessed 28 March 2016.
Preparing to Teach
A Note to Teachers
Before you teach this lesson, please review the following guidance to tailor this lesson to your students’ contexts and needs.
Before introducing the reading The Danger of a Single Story, it is important for students first to consider the word stereotype – a word they have likely heard often but may not have explored in depth – and establish the relationship between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.
In addition to stereotype, the following are key vocabulary terms used in this lesson:
Add these words to your Word Wall, if you are using one for this unit, and provide the necessary support to help students learn these words as you teach the lesson.
Discussions can happen in many formats, ranging from whole-class to small-group conversations. When beginning a unit, or when prompts involve personal reflection, we recommend using smaller, paired conversation strategies rather than whole-group discussions, as they allow for each student to share and be heard and for students to share more openly than when in front of a larger audience. For this reason, in this lesson we suggest using the Concentric Circles teaching strategy to debrief the content of ‘The Danger of a Single Story’.
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s TED Talk, ‘The Danger of a Single Story’, is so compelling, and if it were possible to do so, we would recommend that you show the entire nineteen-minute video to the class to explore the relationship between stories and stereotypes, though in this lesson we have just identified a key six-minute section, should you be pushed for time. Should you choose to read a transcript, then The Danger of a Single Story reading provides an excerpt of Adichie’s talk.
Each lesson in this unit includes a PowerPoint of student-facing slides.
The PowerPoints are intended to be used alongside, and not instead of, the lesson plans because the latter include important rationales, context, and detailed activity instructions that teachers should familiarise themselves with before teaching the lesson.
The PowerPoints include basic content and student-facing prompts from the lesson plans but are minimally designed because we expect teachers to adapt them to fit the needs of their students and class.
Begin the lesson by giving students a few minutes to write in their journals in response to the following questions:
- Has someone else ever made an assumption about you because of some aspect of your identity?
- Was it a positive assumption or a negative one?
- How did you find out about the assumption?
- How did you respond?
As this is quite a personal reflection, it is important that students do not need to share it.
Tell students that the assumptions we make about each other are sometimes based on stereotypes. Define stereotype and explain the relationship between stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination.
- Tell students that next they will be exploring the relationship between storytelling and stereotyping, as well as what it means to have a ‘single story’ of a person or group of people.
- Show the video of Adichie’s TED Talk The Danger of a Single Story (from the start to 6:34).
- Alternatively, you can pass out and read aloud the corresponding section from the reading The Danger of a Single Story.
To debrief Adichie’s TED Talk, have students stand in two concentric circles, facing a partner in the opposite circle, and use the prompts below to begin the discussion. Ask students to rotate to a new partner for each new prompt.
- What does Adichie mean by a ‘single story’? What examples does she give?
- How did Adichie learn single stories about others? How did these stories impact her understanding of herself and of others?
- According to Adichie, why can ‘single stories’ be dangerous? What is the relationship between ‘single stories’ and stereotypes?
- After the concentric circle discussion, use the quotation below or one or more of the subsequent questions as a prompt to allow for individual student reflections in their journals. Encourage students to use resources, such as their notes from today’s lesson, and identity charts, to help them make connections between ‘single stories’ and stereotyping.
‘The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.’ (Adichie)
- What single stories have you noticed that others have about you?
- What dilemmas have you experienced when others view you differently than you view yourself?
- What single stories have you noticed that you hold about others?
- What dilemmas have you seen arise when we view others differently than they view themselves?
- What steps can you take, or have you taken, to challenge these single stories?
- Lead the class in a discussion that allows students to share their ideas about the concentric circle questions and journal responses with the whole group.
If time allows, tell the class that they will be sharing a concluding idea in a Wraparound activity. As you go around the room, students can share a memorable word or short phrase from the lesson. It could be something they wrote or something they heard from a classmate (or from ‘The Danger of a Single Story’).
The reading Little Things Are Big provides students with the opportunity to examine how the stereotypes we believe about each other can affect our choices. The author of this piece describes a dilemma he faced over whether or not to help a woman late at night on the New York City subway. The dilemma he describes, and his own evaluation of the choice he made, can provide the basis for a meaningful and engaging class discussion. Consider sharing the reading with students and using the connection questions that follow for discussion and reflection.
How are you planning to use this resource?Tell Us More
Materials and Downloads
Was this resource useful?Tell us More
Single Stories (UK)
Exploring Identity (UK)
Universe of Obligation (UK)
Unlimited Access to Learning. More Added Every Month.
Facing History & Ourselves is designed for educators who want to help students explore identity, think critically, grow emotionally, act ethically, and participate in civic life. It’s hard work, so we’ve developed some go-to professional learning opportunities to help you along the way.
Exploring ELA Text Selection with Julia Torres
Working for Justice, Equity and Civic Agency in Our Schools: A Conversation with Clint Smith
Centering Student Voices to Build Community and Agency