Facing History conceives of its programme as a journey, one that provides a unique and engaging way for students to study history and the world around them. As one student remarked,
Something about our Facing History class felt different. We were studying the very things I was afraid of: being singled out, teased, and bullied; stereotyping; neighbours against neighbours in Nazi Germany. Students couldn’t react angrily to how people treated each other in history and then turn around and do these very things to me.
By helping students develop as moral philosophers, critical consumers of information, and active citizens, we hope to change the way they see themselves as individuals in a larger society.
It takes a particular kind of learning environment to help students achieve these objectives. A reflective classroom community is a place where students are encouraged to voice their own opinions – even when their ideas are unpopular – and to listen actively to others; to treat different perspectives with patience and respect; and to recognise that there are always more perspectives and there is always more to learn. Psychologist John Amaechi explains:
Teachers have to create this emotional space where it is safe but challenging, where people can be themselves, where people can take chances and fail, where people can tell stories about themselves and reveal things about themselves without risk of derision, without fear of being marginalised. Without safety, there is nothing, there is no learning.
Journal writing is also an integral part of the unit. See the teaching strategy Journals for important suggestions about how to incorporate journals.
The habits of behaviour found in a reflective classroom community – attentive listening to diverse viewpoints, voicing clear ideas, and raising relevant questions – not only help students deeply understand historical content but also require them to practise skills essential for their role as engaged citizens. Philosopher John Dewey believed that classrooms are not the training grounds for future democratic action, but rather places where democracy is already enacted. Professor Diane Moore has argued that ‘encouraging students to take themselves seriously and inspiring in them the confidence to do so are two of the most important roles of an educator in a multicultural democracy’.
These characteristics may be helpful in teaching many different units of study, but they are essential to teaching in a Facing History classroom.