Read firsthand accounts from Jews forced into ghettos by the Nazis. Learn about ghetto living conditions, the dilemmas Jews in ghettos faced, and the acts of rebellion they undertook.
Students use journaling and group discussion to respond to emotionally-challenging diary entries of a Jewish teenager confined in a Nazi ghetto.
Students create a "found poem" drawing on words from the testimony of a survivor of the Holocaust.
Survivors of the ghetto-camp Terezin share stories about their underground publication Vedem and other acts of spiritual resistance.
Find out how the musical tradition of the Jews of Vilna created opportunities for spiritual and physical resistance after the Nazis established a ghetto there.
Read the minutes of a Jewish Councils meeting held in the Vilna ghetto in 1942 and consider the unthinkable choices faced by its members.
Read diary entries from a girl who lived in the Łódź ghetto, and learn the history of Jewish ghettos in Poland.
Learn about the Oyneg Shabes, a group in the Warsaw ghetto that documented Nazi crimes and the daily lives of the ghetto's residents.
Consider how Jews living in the ghettos got information about the outside world, and how much they knew about the mass murders occurring across Europe.
This illustration by Bedřich Fritta, a prisoner at Terezín, depicts the “beautification” of the ghetto-camp undertaken by the SS before the Red Cross visit in 1944.
Margit Koretzova painted this while imprisoned at the Terezín ghetto-camp. She died at age ten.
Holocaust survivor Moshe Shamir recalls how he and his family were uprooted when the Nazis invaded and forced to relocate to a ghetto.
Historians estimate that about 1,100 Jewish ghettos were established by the Nazis and their allies in Europe between 1933 and 1945. This map shows the locations of the largest ghettos. See full-sized image for analysis.