How do nations struggle with mass violence and the rule of law? How do communities work to achieve reconciliation, repair dispossession, and remember those lost? Genocide and mass violence, past and present, raise all of these complex concerns and more.
The shadow of a train that runs from Adana to Istanbul, Turkey, is seen projected on land between the cities of Konya and Adana, Turkey. A German company won concessions to build part of the railway (then called the Baghdad Railway) in the early 1900s, and in 1915 the Turkish government began to use it to deport thousands of Armenians to Syria.
A skeleton is seen next to traditional Maya clothing in a mass grave where 12 people were buried after being massacred by the Guatemalan army in 1982 in the village of El Adelanto. The photograph was taken on August 31, 2007.
This war amputees' football (soccer) team was established in February 2001 and is made up of 22 players, all residents of Murray Town camp for amputees in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Most of the players were amputated by roaming rebels with machetes and handsaws. Their powerful football skills have transformed them into true athletes. This photograph shows a player kicking the ball during a game in 2002. Photograph by Pep Bonet.
Students at the Fort Simpson School in the Northwest Territories in 1922 hold up letters that spell “Goodbye.” For most students, entering a residential school meant saying goodbye to their families, language, and culture.
Scene from the Taiping Rebellion 1850 to 1864. The Taiping Rebellion was a civil war in southern China waged against the ruling Manchu Qing dynasty.Led by Hong Xiuquan, it is estimated that at least 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history.
Tamba Ngaujah was the first amputee of the war in Sierra Leone, which featured brutal amputations of civilians by all three fighting forces. Rebels from the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) captured Ngaujah on November 21, 1992, and cut off both of his hands. He has chosen to forgive the perpetrators because he believes that taking revenge would lead to generational conflict. Photograph by Sara Terry.
This image, which is on the cover of Facing History's publication Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization: The Genocide of the Armenians was painted by the artist Arshile Gorky. It is based on a photograph of Gorky and his mother, Sushan der Marderosian, taken in 1912. Although Gorky is generally identified as an American artist, he was born Vosdanig Adoian near the city of Van in what was then the Ottoman Empire.
While China dealt with internal economic and political upheaval after the formation of the First Chinese Republic in 1911, Japan was emerging as a formidable imperial power. Following their victories in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Japanese leaders sought for more territories in the region. Gradually, Japan grew a vast empire.