Learn how people in the late eighteenth-century used race science, social Darwinism, and eugenics to justify their ideas about membership.
This reading is excerpted from Daniel Chamberlain’s address to the Republicans of South Carolina after President Hayes removed federal troops from the state, allowing Democrats to take over the state government.
When the Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791, the liberties it provided were withheld from the hundreds of thousands of Africans living in slavery. In a public letter to Thomas Jefferson, a free African-American Benjamin Banneker challeneged the treatment of blacks and the continued existence of slavery.
Accounts from the crisis that unfolds in Little Rock, Arkansas when black students attend the previously all-white Central High School. Accounts from the crisis that unfolds in Little Rock, Arkansas when black students attend the previously all-white Central High School.
As the 1874 campaign for governor and state legislature began in Alabama, the Pike County Democratic Party’s platform gave supporters this guidance for how to treat white Republicans.
State Senator Charles Caldwell was a former slave who had led a company of African American soldiers, earlier in 1875, in a state militia formed to protect freedpeople from the White Line. The militia was later disbanded by the governor as part of a “peace agreement” with the White Line, but attacks and intimidation continued, and Caldwell himself was assassinated later that year. Eugene Welborne, who served as Caldwell’s first lieutenant in the militia, gave this account of election day in November 1875 in Clinton, Mississippi, and Caldwell’s efforts to ensure a fair vote.