July 1937: Marco Polo Bridge Incident, outbreak of (Second) Sino-Japanese War
August: Formation of the Shanghai Expeditionary Army
First Opium (First Anglo-Chinese) War. Treaty of Nanking signed (1842) ending the First Opium War. China to pay large indemnity and extraterritoriality and most favored nation principle established in China
King John of England is forced to sign the Magna Carta by members of the English aristocracy. Although intended for the nobility, the document forced the king to respect certain rights of his subjects and imposed legal limits on his power.