Elizabeth Eckford, one of the Little Rock Nine, describes her experience trying to go to school on the first day that Central High School in Little Rock was desegregated.
Former slave Jourdon Anderson responds, with a hint of sarcasm, to a request from his former master to return to work for him.
The White League was a paramilitary group that was allied with the Democratic Party in the South. In 1874 and 1875, the White League was responsible for widespread violence against black and white Republicans in Louisiana and Mississippi. The group’s platform from 1874 is articulated here.
The Hamburg massacre occurred on July 4, 1876, in South Carolina. The Republican governor raised a state militia to stem the spreading violence in the state. An all-black regiment of the militia, led by Dock Adams, was stationed in Hamburg, angering white paramilitary groups, known as the Red Shirts, in nearby towns. Hundreds of Red Shirts surrounded and eventually attacked the 84-member black militia regiment, killing seven. The following is testimony by Adams before a congressional committee describing what he witnessed while hiding near his house.