Explore the decision of Vitka Kempner, then a 19-year-old Jewish teenager from Poland, to leave her family and flee when the German army invaded in 1939.
Former slave Jourdon Anderson responds, with a hint of sarcasm, to a request from his former master to return to work for him.
The White League was a paramilitary group that was allied with the Democratic Party in the South. In 1874 and 1875, the White League was responsible for widespread violence against black and white Republicans in Louisiana and Mississippi. The group’s platform from 1874 is articulated here.
The Hamburg massacre occurred on July 4, 1876, in South Carolina. The Republican governor raised a state militia to stem the spreading violence in the state. An all-black regiment of the militia, led by Dock Adams, was stationed in Hamburg, angering white paramilitary groups, known as the Red Shirts, in nearby towns. Hundreds of Red Shirts surrounded and eventually attacked the 84-member black militia regiment, killing seven. The following is testimony by Adams before a congressional committee describing what he witnessed while hiding near his house.
Read a transcript of the press conference that took place ten days after Michael Brown’s death and several days after responsibility for security in Ferguson was transferred from local police to the Missouri State Highway Patrol.
President Grant replies to Gov. Chamerlain's request for Federal intervention in South Carolina, noting "there has never been a desire on the part of the North to humiliate the South."
The 1876 presidential race between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden was extremely close. Amidst violence, intimidation, and voter fraud, the winner of the election for president and governor in South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana was disputed. These states were the last three former Confederate states governed by Republicans. Congress set up a special commission to decide the election, and a compromise was reached. According to the Compromise of 1877, the three Southern states would give their electoral votes for president to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, but Democrats would be allowed to take control of the governments of those states. Hayes was inaugurated on March 5, 1877. Among his first acts was to end Northern occupation of the states still under military control.