Historians estimate that about 1,100 Jewish ghettos were established by the Nazis and their allies in Europe between 1933 and 1945. This map shows the locations of the largest ghettos. View the Spanish version of this map.
Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazis established more than 40,000 camps for the imprisonment, forced labor, or mass killing of Jews, Sinti and Roma, Communists, and other so-called “enemies of the state." View the Spanish version of this map.
The Meiji Period in Japan (1868-1912) included many institutional reforms attempting both to modernize as well as maintain their sovereignty. These images document efforts of modernization most evident in the military, civil government, education, and cultural institutions.