Historians estimate that about 1,100 Jewish ghettos were established by the Nazis and their allies in Europe between 1933 and 1945. This map shows the locations of the largest ghettos. View the Spanish version of this map.
Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazis established more than 40,000 camps for the imprisonment, forced labor, or mass killing of Jews, Sinti and Roma, Communists, and other so-called “enemies of the state." View the Spanish version of this map.
View images of Martha and Waitstill Sharp. The Sharps were Unitarians who were sent on a mission by the Unitarian Church to aid and rescue refugees in Europe, which was on the brink of war. They worked first in Czechoslovakia and then later in Vichy France.
The Meiji Period in Japan (1868-1912) included many institutional reforms attempting both to modernize as well as maintain their sovereignty. These images document efforts of modernization most evident in the military, civil government, education, and cultural institutions.