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Review a list of anti-Jewish laws, policies, and decrees made in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Explore some of the organizations that sprang up in Poland in the 1920s and 1930s that gave their young members a sense of purpose and belonging.
This list of tips for “the occupied” distributed by a French citizen during World War II provides a window into what it was like to live in a Nazi-occupied country.
Learn about how Alexis de Tocqueville, author of Democracy in America (1835), viewed democracy, freedom, and religion.
Learn about Americans' attitudes of fear and distrust toward Jewish refugees from Europe.
Learn about the concordat that Hitler and the Catholic Church signed in 1933, and the compromises and gains involved for both parties.
Deepen your understanding of the history of antisemitism with this overview of the persecution, violence, and restrictions Jews throughout Europe faced during the Middle Ages.
Consider Ernst Toller, Sigmund Freud, and Arnold Schoenberg’s reactions to the growing antisemitism in Germany in the 1920s.
Discover how the Nazis used art as a tool to promote their ideology by celebrating what they perceived as authentic German art and eliminating art they deemed degenerate.
Eisenhower, a general during World War II, describes his shock and horror at touring a Nazi concentration camp liberated by US troops.
Learn about the pamphlet published by Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche that sparked a national debate about race and eugenics in Germany in the 1920s.
Read eyewitness accounts of the killing process at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest Nazi death camp.