Unit Assessment

Preparing to Write an Argumentative Essay

From the Unit:

World History

Assessment Overview

This optional assessment asks students to respond to the unit’s essential question in an argumentative essay. Seven steps are interspersed throughout the unit (after lessons 4, 7, 9, 14, 19, 22, and 25) to introduce students to the assessment and guide them as they gather evidence, develop their theses, and begin to write their essays. Follow the link at the end of each assessment step to proceed to the next lesson in the unit.

Step 1:

Introducing and Dissecting the Writing Prompt

In the first four lessons of the unit, students explore questions about identity, stereotyping, and group membership. There is a menu of activities that you can choose from for this first step in the essay process that introduces students to the unit writing prompt. The prompt is designed to serve as both a thematic frame for the unit and a final writing assignment at the unit’s end.

Unit Assessment Prompt

Over the course of this unit, you will examine the atrocities committed by the Ottoman government during the Armenian Genocide, the rise of Nazi Party in Germany following World War I, and the pursuit of racial purity in Nazi Germany that resulted in the murder of 6 million Jewish individuals and millions of other civilians during the Holocaust. You will also look closely at the choices made by individuals, groups, and nations that led to these events. For the culminating unit assessment, you will construct a written argument that you support with examples from these historical cases in response to the following question:

How can learning about the choices people made during past episodes of injustice, mass violence, or genocide help guide our choices today?   

The following activities provide suggestions to help students start to understand the meaning of the prompt and to stake out a preliminary position in response to it. At key points later in this unit (after Lessons 7, 9, 14, 19, 22, and 25), you will be cued to give students the opportunity to reflect on the essay prompt and consider how evidence from the history they are studying influences their thinking about it. At these times, students will also have the opportunity to revisit, and potentially modify, the initial position they articulate in this lesson.

Activities

  1. Warm Up with an Anticipation Guide
    • Before class, set up the room for a Four Corners activity. Create four signs that read “Strongly Agree,” “Agree,” “Disagree,” and “Strongly Disagree,” and hang them in different corners of the room.
    • Pass out the anticipation guide handout Why Study History? and ask students to read the statements and decide if they strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with each one. They should circle their responses and then write a brief explanation for each choice.
    • Use the Four Corners strategy to debrief the anticipation guide. Read each statement aloud and ask students to stand near one of the signs in the classroom to indicate their response. After students find their positions, ask them to explain their thinking to others in their corner.
    • Next, ask students in each corner to share their ideas with the rest of the class. As one corner disagrees with another, encourage students to respond directly to each other’s statements and have a mini-debate about the prompt. If students’ ideas change due to the debate, tell them that they are free to switch corners.
  2. Generate Initial Responses to the Essay Prompt
    • Consider having students create a designated section in their journals for their essay reflections, notes, and ideas. Then tell them that they will be reflecting on the Four Corners discussion (if you included it in this lesson) and starting to think about a new and related question, which they will explore over the course of the unit.
    • Pass out or project the essay topic and ask students to respond to it in their journals. Encourage students to consider the quotations on the handout Why Study History? and their group discussion if these help them think about the question.
      • How can learning about the choices people made in the past be used as a tool to guide our responses to injustice, mass violence, and genocide in our communities and in the world today?
    • Next, ask students to debrief the journal prompt in a Think, Pair, Share discussion. Ask students to try to support their thinking with an example from the history they have studied or their own lives. Finally, ask students to share a few opinions or ideas with the larger group.
  3. Dissect the Essay Writing Prompt
    • Using the Dissecting the Prompt strategy, have students take apart and analyze the unit assessment prompt (see above), identifying the historical topics they need to learn more about in the rest of the unit to be able to fully answer the question. This will establish several inquiry questions for the class that are related to students’ broader thinking about the purpose of studying history in this lesson.
    • Let students know that they should keep all their responses and notes about these ideas in their journals so they can use them later to generate ideas for their essays.
  4. Reflect on New Understandings
    • Have students respond to the following questions on an exit card:
      • How did today’s class affect your thinking about why we should study history? What makes you say that?
      • How did it affect how your think about the connection between the choices people made in history and the choices you make in your own life?
    • Collect the exit cards as students leave the classroom. Consider sharing some interesting ideas or patterns at the start of the next lesson. Unless you have permission from the student, we recommend that you keep these anonymous.

Materials

Step 2:

Introducing Evidence Logs

After students have completed Lesson 7: Genocide Under the Cover of War, it is an appropriate time to revisit their initial position on the essay prompt that they drafted in the first assessment step, Introducing and Dissecting the Writing Prompt. At that time, students reflected on the writing prompt, but they they did not connect it to any of the specific historical events they are studying in this unit. Now that students have learned about the Armenian Genocide, they will reflect on the writing prompt a second time by adding this historical lens. It is important that students keep the materials for the essay (journal reflections, evidence logs, writing handouts) in a safe place, because they will refer back to them over the course of the unit in preparation to write the essay assessment.

Suggested Activities

  1. Journal Reflection
    • Ask students to reread their journal responses from “Introducing the Writing Prompt” and then respond to the following question:
      How can learning about the choices individuals, groups, and nations made during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Armenian Genocide help guide how we respond to injustice in our communities and in the world today?
    • Have students share their ideas with a partner or small group, or you might use the Two-Minute Interview strategy and encourage students to add new ideas to their journal responses that expand or challenge their current thinking about the prompt.
  2. Annotate and Paraphrase Sources
    If you have not yet taught students how to annotate or paraphrase sources, you might want to devote a class period to modeling and practicing this skill. You could replay part of the Armenian Genocide video segment from Lesson 6: The Rise of Nationalism and the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire or select a reading from Lesson 7: Genocide under the Cover of War to reread with the class, modeling the process of annotating and paraphrasing sources. Alternatively, you can select a new reading from Chapter 5: The Range of Choices from Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization: The Genocide of the Armenians (pages 113–144) that students haven’t read.
  3. Gather Evidence in an Evidence Log
    • We recommend that students start to gather evidence that supports or challenges their initial thinking about the writing prompt at this point in the unit. Evidence logs provide a place where students can centralize and organize evidence they collect over the course of a unit. There are two templates for evidence logs on the Teaching Strategies page of the Facing History website, and a third option is explained in Strategy 6: Evidence Logs and Index Cards (pages 35–38) of the Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies Holocaust and Human Behavior supplement.
    • Before students start to collect their own evidence, it is helpful if you model the process by doing a “think-aloud” where you complete the first row of an evidence log template on the board. In your think-aloud, you might first select a piece of evidence that is irrelevant to the topic and then explain to the class why you are not going to use it. Then select a relevant piece of evidence and enter it into the chart.
    • Students should work individually, in pairs, or in small groups to gather evidence from their readings, handouts, and class notes about the Armenian Genocide that helps them answer the essay topic question.
    • After students have gathered their evidence, have them share their findings and add more evidence to their logs using the Give One, Get One strategy.
  4. Final Reflection
    In a final journal response or on exit cards, ask students to respond to the following questions:
    • Has any evidence that you recorded confirmed your initial thinking about the essay prompt?
    • Has any evidence that you recorded conflicted with or challenged your initial thinking about the essay prompt?
    • Which choices by individuals, groups, and nations in the history that you have learned about so far in this unit seemed most significant? What made those choices powerful or impactful?
Step 3:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 1 of 4

After students have completed Lesson 9: The Weimar Republic, it is an appropriate time to return to the unit’s writing prompt and consider new evidence from the history of the Weimar era that they might use to inform and support the position they are developing. The activities below will guide students as they consider the choices Germans made during the Weimar Republic and how learning about those choices can help guide our responses to injustices in our communities and in the world today. In addition to revisiting the writing prompt, students will also start to evaluate the quality and relevance of the evidence they are gathering. Remind students that it is important that they keep the materials for the essay (journal reflections, evidence logs, writing handouts) in a safe place, because they will refer back to them over the course of the unit as they prepare to write the essay assessment.

Suggested Activities

  1. Journal Reflection
    • Ask students to reread their journal responses from Introducing Evidence Logs and then respond to the following question:
      How can learning about the choices individuals, groups, and nations made during the Weimar Republic help guide how we respond to injustice in our communities and in the world today?
    • Have students share their ideas with a partner or small group, or you might use the Concentric Circles strategy by having students arrange their desks across from one another in two circles. Encourage students to add new ideas to their journal responses that expand or challenge their thinking about the prompt.
  2. Evaluate the Evidence and Assess Its Relevance
    • Facilitate a class discussion in which students suggest documents or videos from Lessons 8 and 9 that are relevant to the essay topic. Write the list on the board.
    • Depending on your students’ experience working with primary and secondary source evidence, choose a piece of evidence from the list and one or more activities from Strategy 9: Evaluating Evidence (pages 45–46) or Strategy 10: Relevant or Not? (pages 47–48) of the Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies resource to help students develop their skills for working with evidence. Then have them practice the skills in small groups with other pieces of evidence from the list.
    • Have students break into pairs or groups to collect and evaluate new pieces evidence on their evidence log handouts. They should first review the documents on the list, adding to their annotations, and then write relevant pieces of evidence that they have evaluated on their handouts.
    • After groups have gathered and assessed their evidence, use the Give One, Get One or Two-Minute Interview strategy to have students share the evidence they have collected and identify questions they have about what they are learning.  
  3. Final Reflection
    • Have students spend a few minutes reviewing their initial responses from Step 1: Introducing the Writing Prompt and evidence logs from Step 2: Introducing Evidence Logs.
    • Then, in a final journal response or on exit cards, ask students to respond to the following questions:
      • Has any evidence that you recorded confirmed your initial thinking about the topic question?
      • Has any evidence that you recorded conflicted with or challenged your initial thinking about the topic question?
      • Which choices by individuals, groups, and nations in the history that you have learned about so far in this unit seemed most significant? What made those choices powerful or impactful?
Step 4:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 2 of 4

After completing Lesson 14: Laws and the National Community, students are ready to think about how what they have studied about the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany in Lessons 10 through 14 impacts their thinking about the essay prompt. In addition to addressing the writing prompt in a journal reflection, students will practice making inferences about primary and secondary sources in order to support their analysis, reflection, and research.

Suggested Activities

  1. Journal Reflection
    • Ask students to reread their last essay journal response that they completed after Lesson 9: The Weimar Republic and then respond to the following question:
      How can learning about the choices individuals, groups, and nations made as democracy crumbled and the Nazi Party seized control in Germany help guide how we respond to injustice in our communities and in the world today?
    • To allow students to interact with a number of their peers after they have finished writing, have them first share their journal responses with a partner. Then ask each pair to join another pair so the class is now divided into groups of four. After they share, have the groups combine into groups of eight or come together as a class. Remind students that they should add ideas from the discussions to their journal entries that extend or challenge their thinking.
  2. Learning to Infer
    • To introduce inferences, follow the procedure for Strategy 11: Learning to Infer on page 49 of the Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies resource. Students will apply what they learn about inferring like a historian after they gather some evidence from this section of the unit.
    • Next, facilitate a class discussion in which students suggest documents or videos from Lessons 10 through 14, which focus on the Nazis’ rise to power, that help them address the essay prompt. Write the list on the board.
    • Then have students work in pairs or small groups to add evidence from the sources on the list to their evidence logs. Depending on the skills you taught in Step 3: Adding to Evidence Logs, remind students that they should be evaluating their evidence and assessing its relevance before adding it to their evidence logs.  
    • Finally, using Option A: It says . . . I say . . . And so . . . or Option B: Inference Equation from Strategy 11: Learning to Infer on page 50 of the Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies resource, model the strategy on the board with one piece of evidence and then have students work with a partner to choose three pieces of evidence. Circulate around the room to get a sense of who understands inferences and who will need follow-up instruction.
  3. Final Reflection
    In a final journal response or on exit cards, ask students to respond to the following questions:
    • How has what you have learned about the Nazi Party’s rise to power in Germany changed your thinking about the prompt?
    • Which choices made by individuals, groups, and nations in the history that you have learned about so far in this unit seemed most significant? What made those choices powerful or impactful?
    • What questions do you have about the essay topic, evaluating evidence, and inferring like a historian that you didn’t ask in class today?
Step 5:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 3 of 4

Before introducing the final historical topic for the essay, the Holocaust and its legacy, now is an appropriate time for students to review the documents and videos from Lessons 15 to 19 and consider which information supports, expands, or challenges their thinking about the unit assessment prompt: How can learning about the choices people made during past episodes of injustice, mass violence, or genocide help guide our choices today? The following activities can stand alone or be taught together, depending on the needs of your students at this point in the essay process.

Suggested Activities

  1. Share Ideas from Recent Lessons
    • Facilitate a class discussion in which students suggest documents or videos from Lessons 15 to 19 that help them address the essay prompt. Remind them that they learned about the power of propaganda, youth in Nazi Germany, Kristallnacht, and Hitler’s ideology of “race and space.” Write the list on the board as students share their ideas.
    • Use the Learn to Listen, Listen to Learn discussion strategy so students can build on each other’s ideas as they consider how what they have learned in recent lessons impacts their thinking about the essay prompt. Start by having students reflect in their journals on the following questions:
      • Which choices made by individuals, groups, and nations in Lessons 15 through 19 seemed most significant?
      • What made those choices powerful or impactful?
    • Before they write, give students a few minutes to review their journal entries from Lessons 15 through 19. Encourage them to look for specific details and examples of choices people made to include in their new journal responses to these questions.
    • Next, divide students into groups of four or five and explain the Learn to Listen, Listen to Learn strategy. Each student will have the opportunity to share part of his or her journal reflection with the rest of the group. It is helpful to provide a time limit for each student’s sharing. The other group members will practice listening without interrupting the speaker. When it is their turn to share, tell students to refrain from responding to other students’ ideas; they should focus only on sharing their own thoughts and reflections from their journals. Encourage students to take notes from each other and record ideas or evidence that supports or challenges their ideas.
    • After all group members have shared, each group will have an open conversation in which they ask each other questions and respond to each other’s ideas. They should decide on three or four main ideas from their discussion that they will share with the whole group.
    • Then ask each group to report to the entire class on the main ideas from their conversation.
    • Finish the activity by giving students a few minutes to return to their journals and write down any ideas they heard from their classmates that contributed to or changed their thinking about the impact and power of people’s choices in history and today.
  2. Add to Evidence Logs
    Students should add to their evidence logs any information from Lessons 15 to 19 that helps them answer the essay question: How can learning about the choices people made during past episodes of injustice, mass violence, or genocide help guide our choices today?
  3. Revisit Skills: Annotating, Paraphrasing, and Relevant Evidence
    • If you have noticed students struggling with annotation or paraphrasing, review those skills with one or more of the readings from this section of the unit before asking them to add new information to their evidence logs.
    • If you have observed that students are writing every piece of evidence rather than the most relevant ones on their evidence logs, you could create a mini-lesson in which you give students a mock thesis statement (it could be for a different topic question) and a list of ten pieces of evidence. Ask students to label the evidence “R” for relevant and “I” for irrelevant, explaining their choices. Or you could ask students to rank the evidence in a ladder from most to least relevant and justify their choices in small groups and then to the class.
  4. Final Reflection on the Unit Essay Assessment
    • Project the full unit assessment prompt (introductory paragraph and question) and have students review their ideas from the Dissecting the Prompt activity in Step 1: Introducing and Dissecting the Prompt.
    • Then, in a journal response or on exit cards, ask students to respond to the following questions:
      • What new, different, or deeper understanding do you have about how examining the choices people made in the past can help guide how we respond to injustice, mass violence, and genocide in our communities and in the world today?
      • What do you feel you need to review or to learn more about in order to answer the writing prompt and write your essay?
Step 6:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 4 of 4

Students are now ready to reflect on, gather evidence for, and discuss the unit writing prompt in its entirety:

Over the course of this unit, you have examined the atrocities committed by the Ottoman government during the Armenian Genocide, the rise of Nazi Party in Germany following World War I, and the pursuit of racial purity in Nazi Germany that resulted in the murder of 6 million Jewish individuals and millions of other civilians during the Holocaust. You have also looked closely at the choices made by individuals, groups, and nations that led to these events. For the culminating unit assessment, you will construct a written argument that you support with examples from these historical cases in response to the following question:

How can learning about the choices people made during past episodes of injustice, mass violence, or genocide help guide our choices today?

In addition to adding evidence from Lessons 20 through 22 to their evidence logs, consider having students engage in structured conversations or mini-debates that challenge them to support their ideas about the writing prompt with evidence from the unit while also practicing active listening with their peers. For many students, the process of talking before writing helps them organize their thoughts, explain their thinking, and develop a clear point of view.

Suggested Activities

  1. Journal Reflection
    • Have students review their journal responses, handouts, and readings from Lessons 20 to 22. Then ask them to respond to the following questions in their journals:
      • Which choices made by individuals, groups, and nations in these lessons seemed most significant?
      • What made those choices powerful or impactful? What can we learn from those choices about history or human behavior?
    • Use the Wraparound strategy to allow each student to share one choice from their reflection that they think is most significant.
  2. Evidence Logs
    Students should work in pairs or small groups to add to their evidence logs any information from Lessons 20 to 22 that helps them respond to the essay question. As in past evidence-gathering activities, start together as a class by making a list of relevant handouts, readings, and videos that help students address the essay prompt before asking them to select relevant evidence to add to their logs.
  3. Take a Stand on Controversial Issues
    Although students can continue to gather evidence throughout the final two lessons of this unit, this is an appropriate time for them to begin the process of developing their position in response to the writing prompt by engaging in structured discussions with their peers. You can select from the Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies supplement’s Strategy 14: Taking a Stand on Controversial Issues: Speaking and Listening Strategies or Strategy 15: Building Arguments through Mini-Debates. Or you might select a different pre-writing teaching strategy from the website.
  4. Final Reflection
    • Ask students to reread their previous journal entries in response to the unit assessment prompt. Challenge them to look for, and maybe even mark with a star, places where their thinking about the question has evolved or changed.
    • Then project or pass out the unit essay prompt in its entirety (see above) and read it out loud together.
    • In a final journal response or on exit cards, ask students to respond to the following questions:
      • How has your thinking about the essay assessment prompt changed over the course of the unit? Which text (reading, image, video), lesson, or activity contributed the most to this change?
      • What do you feel you need to review or learn more about in order to address the essay topic question and write your essay?
Step 7:

Refining the Thesis and Finalizing Evidence Logs

After finishing this unit, students will need time to complete their evidence logs, develop and refine their thesis statements, organize their evidence into an outline, and draft, revise, and edit their essays. The suggested activities that are presented below will help your students think about the unit as a whole as they answer the writing prompt, as well as start to prepare them to write a strong thesis statement for their essay. For ideas and resources for teaching the remaining steps of the writing process from outlining to publishing, we encourage you to consult the Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies supplement and the online Teaching Strategies collection for activities and graphic organizers to support your teaching.

Suggested Activities

  1. Rapid-Fire Journal Reflection
    • Now that students have completed all of the lessons for this unit, ask them to complete a Rapid-Fire Writing entry in response to unit assessment prompt:
      Over the course of this unit, you have examined the atrocities committed by the Ottoman government during the Armenian Genocide, the rise of Nazi Party in Germany following World War I, and the pursuit of racial purity in Nazi Germany that resulted in the murder of 6 million Jewish individuals and millions of other civilians during the Holocaust. You have also looked closely at the choices made by individuals, groups, and nations that led to these events. For the culminating unit assessment, you will construct a written argument that you support with examples from these historical cases in response to the following question: How can learning about the choices people made during past episodes of injustice, mass violence, or genocide help guide our choices today?
    • Have students debrief their rapid-fire writing with a partner, in a small group, or together as a class.
  2. Evidence Logs and Fishbowl Discussion
    • Students should add to their evidence logs events any information from Lessons 23 to 25 that helps them answer the essay topic question. As in previous lessons where you gathered evidence, start the process together as a class by making a list of readings, handouts, and videos from these lessons that help students answer the essay topic question.
    • Now that students have gathered their evidence and written numerous journal entries, use the Fishbowl strategy to discuss the following questions, and encourage students to pose their own unanswered questions about the unit and writing prompt:
      • Which choices made by individuals, groups, and nations in the history that you have learned about in this unit seemed most significant? How do those choices seem similar to or different from the important choices facing people in the world today?
      • What have you learned over the course of this unit about how the choices people made in the past can help inform how we respond to injustices in the world today? Which text (reading, video, image), lesson, or activity was most significant in helping you understand this relationship?
  3. Thesis Sorting
    Depending on what sort of instruction and practice your students have had with thesis statements, you may want to give them an opportunity to practice evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of sample thesis statements before refining their own. You can learn more through Strategy 17: Thesis Sorting in the Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies supplement.
  4. Final Reflection
    • On exit cards, ask students to respond to the writing prompt in a statement that takes a clear stance, includes reference to the historical moments they will address, and can be defended with evidence from the unit.
    • You can give students written or oral feedback on their working thesis statements in the next lesson and use the information from the exit cards to determine what skills you may need to (re)teach so that students are equipped to write strong thesis statements.

Unit

Introduction
Holocaust

Get Started

Learn about this unit's alignment to California state standards and find other helpful information before you begin teaching.

Lesson 1 of 25
Holocaust

Introducing the Unit

Students develop a contract establishing a reflective classroom community as they prepare to explore the historical case study of this unit.

Lesson 2 of 25
Holocaust

Exploring Identity

Students identify the social and cultural factors that help shape our identities by analyzing firsthand reflections and creating personal identity charts.

Lesson 3 of 25
Holocaust

Stereotypes and "Single Stories"

Students create working definitions of stereotype as they examine the human behavior of applying categories to people and things.

Lesson 4 of 25
Holocaust

Universe of Obligation

Students learn a new concept, universe of obligation, and use it to analyze the ways that their society designates who is deserving of respect and caring.

Assessment

Topic

Holocaust
The Armenian Genocide
Step 1:

Introducing and Dissecting the Writing Prompt

Students begin to understand and stake out a preliminary position in response to the assessment writing prompt.

Lesson 5 of 25
Antisemitism & Religious Intolerance

The Roots and Impact of Antisemitism

Students explore the long history of discrimination against Jews and come to understand how anti-Judaism was transformed into antisemitism in the nineteenth century.

Lesson 6 of 25
The Armenian Genocide

The Rise of Nationalism and the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire

Students turn their attention to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of a strong current of ethno-nationalism rooted in Turkish identity.

Lesson 7 of 25
The Armenian Genocide

Genocide under the Cover of War

Students learn about the events and choices of the Armenian Genocide and explore the consequences of the genocide from the perspective of survivors.

Assessment

Topic

Holocaust
The Armenian Genocide
Step 2:

Introducing Evidence Logs

After learning about the Armenian Genocide, students reflect on the writing prompt a second time by adding a historical lense.

Lesson 8 of 25
The Armenian Genocide

Nationalism and the Aftermath of World War I

Students consider the ways in which World War I intensified people’s loyalty to their country and resentment toward others perceived as a threat.

Lesson 9 of 25
Holocaust

The Weimar Republic

Students reflect on the idea of democracy as they analyze the politics, economics, and culture of Germany during the period of the Weimar Republic.

Assessment

Topic

Holocaust
The Armenian Genocide
Step 3:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 1 of 4

Students incorporate new evidence from the history of the Weimar era into the position they are developing.

Lesson 10 of 25
Holocaust

The Rise of the Nazi Party

Students examine how choices made by individuals and groups contributed to the rise of the Nazi Party in the 1920s and 1930s.

Lesson 11 of 25
Holocaust

European Jewish Life before World War II

Students analyze images and film that convey the richness of Jewish life across Europe at the time of the Nazis’ ascension to power.

Lesson 12 of 25
Holocaust

Dismantling Democracy

Students examine the steps the Nazis took to replace democracy with dictatorship and draw conclusions about the values and institutions that make democracy possible.

Lesson 13 of 25
Holocaust

Do You Take the Oath

Students consider the choices and reasoning of individual Germans who stayed quiet or spoke up during the first few years of Nazi rule.

Lesson 14 of 25
Holocaust

Laws and the National Community

Students are introduced to the Nazis’ idea of a “national community” and examine how the Nazis used the Nuremberg Laws to define who belonged.

Assessment

Topic

Holocaust
The Armenian Genocide
Step 4:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 2 of 4

Students consider how what they've learned about the rise of the Nazi Party influences their thinking about the essay prompt and practice making inferences.

Lesson 15 of 25
Holocaust

Power of Propaganda

Students analyze several examples of Nazi propaganda and consider how the Nazis used media to influence the thoughts, feelings, and actions of individual Germans.

Lesson 16 of 25
Holocaust

Youth and the National Community

Students learn about the experiences of people in Nazi Germany through a variety of firsthand accounts and identify the range of choices that they faced.

Lesson 17 of 25
Holocaust

Kristallnacht

Students learn about the violent pogroms of Kristallnacht by watching a short documentary and then reflecting on eyewitness testimonies.

Lesson 18 of 25
Holocaust

Responding to a Refugee Crisis

Students think about the responsibilities of governments as they consider how countries around the world responded to the European Jews trying to escape Nazi Germany.

Lesson 19 of 25
Holocaust

Race and Space

Students examine the Nazi ideology of “race and space” and the role it played in Germany’s aggression toward other nations, groups, and individuals.

Assessment

Topic

Holocaust
The Armenian Genocide
Step 5:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 3 of 4

Students review the documents and videos from previous lessons and consider what information supports, expands, or challenges their thinking about the essay.

Lesson 20 of 25
Holocaust

The Holocaust: Bearing Witness

Students are introduced to the enormity of the crimes committed during the Holocaust and look closely at stories of a few individuals who were targeted by Nazi brutality.

Lesson 21 of 25
Holocaust

The Holocaust: Range of Responses

Students deepen their examination of human behavior during the Holocaust by analyzing and discussing the range of choices available to individuals, groups, and nations.

Lesson 22 of 25
Holocaust

Justice and Judgment after the Holocaust

Students grapple with the meaning of justice and the purpose of trials as they learn how the Allies responded to the atrocities of Nazi Germany.

Assessment

Topic

Holocaust
The Armenian Genocide
Step 6:

Adding to Evidence Logs, 4 of 4

Students reflect on, gather evidence for, and discuss the unit writing prompt in its entirety.

Lesson 23 of 25
The Armenian Genocide

Confronting Genocide Denial

Students explore some of the causes and consequences of denying the Armenian Genocide and reflect on the role of public art to commemorate difficult histories.

Lesson 24 of 25
The Armenian Genocide

Survivor Testimony and the Legacy of Memory

Students deepen their thinking about memory and identity by reflecting on the stories of Holocaust and Armenian Genocide survivors and their descendants.

Lesson 25 of 25
Holocaust

Choosing to Participate

Students use the “levers of power” framework to identify ways they can bring about positive change in their communities.

Final Assessment

Topic

Holocaust
The Armenian Genocide
Step 7:

Refining the Thesis and Finalizing Evidence Logs

Students reflect on the unit as a whole and begin to write a strong thesis statement for their essay.

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