Lesson 6 of 15
One 50-minute class period

Responding to Difference

From the Unit:

Essential Questions

How do our beliefs about difference influence the ways in which we see and choose to interact with each other?

Guiding Questions

  • How do we learn which differences between people matter and which do not?
  • How do we respond to difference?

Learning Objectives

Students will categorise the many ways in which humans respond when encountering difference and use this information to write creatively in response to the question, “What do we do with a variation?”


In the previous lesson, students learned about our tendency as humans to form groups. They learned that while group membership can come with benefits, there are also potential costs that can involve hard choices between maintaining one’s own identity and risking exclusion from the group. Students also explored the range of responses available to people when they encounter exclusion, discrimination, and injustice. In this lesson, students will look more closely at the variety of ways we respond to differences between ourselves and others. This is important for students to consider because our responses to difference can contribute to the creation of “in” and “out” groups that can favour some individuals and groups while marginalising others. After reflecting on difference in a journal response, students will read a poem and use it as an entry point for discussing the different ways people respond to human differences and the consequences of those different responses. In the end, students will turn their attention to their school or local community and, in a creative assignment, consider the ways in which they would like to see people respond to difference.

Notes to Teacher

  1. Preparing for Activity 3
    This lesson’s third activity requires some preparation in advance, the steps of which are explained in the directions on the What Do We Do With a Variation? Question Sort handout. If you do not want to prepare the question strips in advance, you could distribute the handout and ask each group to cut apart one along the dotted lines for the sorting activity.

  2. Classroom-ready PowerPoint Slides
    Each lesson in this unit includes a PowerPoint of student-facing slides. The PowerPoints are intended to be used alongside, and not instead of, the lessons plans because the latter include important rationales and context that teachers should familiarise themselves with before teaching the lesson. The PowerPoints include basic media and prompts from the lesson plans but are minimally designed because we expect teachers to adapt them to fit the needs of their students and class.

    Responding to Difference

    Responding to Difference

    This PowerPoint for Lesson 6 of the Standing Up for Democracy unit is ready to use in the classroom with student-facing slides and complete teaching notes.



  1. Reflect on How We Respond to Difference
    • To introduce students to the themes in this lesson’s text, ask them to respond in their journals to the following questions:

      • What are some of the ways that people respond when they encounter an individual or group that seems different from them?
      • What are some of the reasons for the different responses people might have to those who are different from them?
      • How do we learn about which differences between people matter in our society and which do not?
    • Then ask students to Think, Pair, Share their responses before bringing the class together and asking each pair to share one of the ways people respond when they encounter difference and recording their ideas on chart paper.
  2. Think About What We Do When We Encounter Difference
    • Tell students that they will now read a poem by James Berry about the many ways we respond when we encounter a difference. While Berry was born in rural Jamaica in 1924, he moved to Britain in 1948 where he lived until his death in 2017.
    • Pass out and read aloud What Do We Do With a Difference?. Try reading it a few different ways. Perhaps you read it out loud the first time so that students get a sense of the rhythm of the poem. Then, using popcorn or wraparound, which are explained on the Read Aloud teaching strategy page, have students read the poem out loud sentence by sentence, and then a third time line by line. Finally, ask students to discuss in a Think, Pair, Share activity what they think the poem is about based on their first impressions of the text.
  3. Sort and Discuss the Ways We Respond to a Difference
    • Next, divide the class into groups and pass out the envelopes with What Do We Do With a Variation? Question Sort sentence strips and some post-it notes or index cards. Tell the students that they should sort the strips into categories of similar kinds of responses. They should create a label for each category and write it on a post-it note or index card (for example, “Fear,” “Indifference”). They might start by creating piles of responses to difference and then labelling them. Or they might create their categories first and then organise their strips into them. Regardless of their process, students should work together with their group members to complete this task.
    • After the groups have organised the lines of the poem into categories of responses, ask them to discuss the following questions:

      • Which lines of the poem were easiest to categorise and which ones were the most difficult? Why do you think some responses to difference were easier or harder than others to place in a category?
      • Which of your categories had the most and the fewest examples from the poem? What might you attribute to this difference?
      • Can you think of any specific examples (in your school, your local community, or the world) of the different ways that Berry says humans respond to differences? Why do you think people respond in these ways?
      • What are other ways that humans respond to difference that Berry does not acknowledge in his poem?
      • What is the message of Berry’s poem? What does he want his reader to understand about humans and human behaviour when responding to difference?
    • After groups have finished their discussions, ask them to share one interesting take-away from the activity and their discussion. You might also choose to facilitate a class discussion about one or more of the questions.
  4. Create an Aspirational Stanza for Berry’s Poem
    • Ask students to take a moment to envision how they would like their school community to respond to the differences between its members. You might ask them to close their eyes and visualise the response they would like to see (rather than what they perhaps have seen or experienced).
    • Then tell students that they will end the lesson by writing an additional three-line stanza that describes their vision for how they would like their school community or local community to respond to a difference today. They can follow the pattern of Berry’s poem by starting the first line of their stanza with “Do we . . . ,” finishing the question in line two, and then adding an additional question in line three. You might choose to have pairs work on this task, or ask students to create their own stanzas.
    • Students can share their stanzas in a wraparound or gallery walk.


Digging Deeper into How We Respond to Difference
In the reading Understanding Strangers, Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuscinski and Moroccan scholar Fatema Mernissi reflect on the ways in which we respond to difference, both in ancient times and today. Similarly, Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth in the United Kingdom, Jonathan Sacks, considers how we confront the “Other” when he shares his three models for integration in the reading Three Parables of Integration. Both of these readings pair well with each other and James Berry’s What Do We Do with a Variation? After teaching Berry’s poem, you might assign half the class each reading and divide the students into groups to read aloud and then discuss the connections questions. Then jigsaw the students into groups of four so each group has two students with each reading. Students can summarise their readings and then compare and contrast Kapuscinski’s three ideas for how we might respond to the “Other” with Sack’s three models for integration. Then, in a class discussion, students can compare the readings with Berry’s poems. They might rank all of the responses to difference in the three readings from the most inclusive to least inclusive and discuss where they see evidence of these responses in their own school and local communities.



Get Prepared to Teach This Scheme of Work in Your Classroom

Prepare yourself to teach this unit by reading about our pedagogy, teaching strategies, and the unit's structure.

Lesson 1 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Understanding Identity

Students consider the question "Who am I?" and identify social and cultural factors that shape identity by reading a short story and creating personal identity charts.

Lesson 2 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Transcending Single Stories

Students reflect on how stereotypes and "single stories" influence our identities, how we view others, and the choices we make.

Lesson 3 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Why Little Things Are Big

Students reflect on the power of being labelled and use Jesús Colón’s essay to reflect on their own experiences of being misjudged.

Lesson 4 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

The Challenge of Confirmation Bias

Students define confirmation bias and examine why people sometimes maintain their beliefs in the face of information that contradicts their understanding.



Democracy & Civic Engagement
Step 1:

The Individual and Society

Students explore their identities through a mask-making project.

Lesson 5 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

The Costs and Benefits of Belonging

Students learn about group membership and explore the range of responses available to us when we encounter exclusion, discrimination, and injustice.

Lesson 6 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Responding to Difference

Students explore a poem by James Berry about the ways we respond to difference and complete a creative assignment about their school or community.

Lesson 7 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

When Differences Matter

Students consider what happens when one aspect of our identity is privileged above others by society.

Lesson 8 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Blending In and Standing Out

Students use an excerpt from Sarfraz Manzoor memoir to reflect on identity, belonging, and wanting to feel invisible.

Lesson 9 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Defining Our Obligations to Others

Students are introduced to the concept of universe of obligation to better understand how societies create "in" groups and "out" groups.



Democracy & Civic Engagement
Step 2:

We and They

Students work collaboratively to create illustrated children’s stories that explore issues of conformity and belonging.

Lesson 10 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Defining Human Rights

Students create a definition for a "right" in order to explore the challenges faced by the UN Commission on Human Rights to create an international framework of rights for all human beings.

Lesson 11 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Making Rights Universal

Students analyse four rights in the UDHR and decide whether they are universal and enjoyed by all in the world today.



Democracy & Civic Engagement
Step 3:

Understanding Human Rights

Students work collaboratively to create a School Declaration of Human Rights Infographic.

Lesson 12 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Standing Up to Hatred on Cable Street

Students study the Battle of Cable Street in London by examining testimonies of individuals who demonstrated against fascist leader Oswald Mosley.

Lesson 13 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Public Art as a Form of Participation

Students analyse the Battle of Cable Street Mural and reflect on the role of public art to commemorate, educate, and build community.

Lesson 14 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Protesting Discrimination in Bristol

Students use the historical case study of the Bristol Bus Boycott to examine strategies for bringing about change in our communities.

Lesson 15 of 15
Democracy & Civic Engagement

Speaking Up and Speaking Out

Students analyse a spoken word poem about bullying and consider how they might use their voices to call attention to injustice in their schools or communities.

Final Assessment


Democracy & Civic Engagement
Step 4:

Choosing to Participate

Students have an opportunity to explore one issue in-depth and to create an action plan that inspires change in their schools or communities.

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