The Indian Act of 1876 granted the Canadian government control over many aspects of Indigenous Peoples’ lives, including the management of housing, health services, the environment, and other resources on reserves. In this photo, an indigenous Canadian woman is on a reserve, 1930.
Adjusting to life in America was difficult for Calvin, not speaking a word of English. He had to start school a month after his arrival, beginning first grade at nine years old. He persevered in school and entered University of California Berkeley in 1949 until he was drafted in 1951 to fight in the Korean war. After the war he returned to the US, received a combat medic’s badge and 4 battle stars and graduated from Berkeley in 1956.