Tsukunft meeting in Warsaw, the capital of Poland, 1930s. Tsukunft was the youth organization of the socialist, secular Bund. Like many other Jews, its members partook in Warsaw’s bustling marketplace of political ideologies.
A photograph by Roman Vishniac (1897–1990), ca. 1935–1938. This and similar photographs taken by Vishniac are among the few visual testimonies to the life of Jews in eastern Europe during this period. The vast majority of the millions of Jews who lived in eastern Europe perished during the Holocaust.
A housewife, ca. 1935–1938. Vishniac’s images, while profound and moving, offer only a limited portrayal of the Jewish population in pre-World War II Europe. They helped to shape images of eastern European Jews as poor and traditional.
Sara, sitting in bed in a basement dwelling, with stenciled flowers above her head, Warsaw, ca. 1935–1938. One of Vishniac’s best-known photographs, this image was printed on charity tins and circulated throughout France to collect donations. Some of Vishniac’s famous images were staged to evoke sympathy.