On August 31, 1939, the Nazis faked an attack on a radio station in Gleiwitz, a German town on the Polish border. The Gestapo kidnapped and killed a man, dressed him in a Polish military uniform, and left his body at the station to create the impression that Poland was behind the attack.1 The next morning, the Germans marched into Poland in retaliation for the Polish “attack on Gleiwitz.” That evening, relatives and neighbors gathered around the radio in the home of Max von der Grün’s grandparents as Hitler declared war.

No one cheered . . . not even my aunt who had always cheered for Hitler; no one cried “Heil!” or turned somersaults with joy. . . . No one spoke. . . .

My grandfather wept. I could scarcely believe that I was seeing this old, worn-out man crying. No one asked him why he was crying. . . .

No one displayed any enthusiasm. Not in school, not on the streets, not in the shops, not even among the Hitler Youth. No one dared to look anyone else in the face for fear that he might be asked what he thought about the war.

Of course, not everyone felt this way. A few of the boys in my class . . . regretted that they were not older, for then they could have volunteered to join the Army; meanwhile I consoled myself with the thought that the war would be over by the time I got out of school. . . . Three days after Hitler attacked Poland, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany.2

Journalist William Shirer observed a similar reaction in Berlin on September 3, 1939: 

In 1914, I believe, the excitement in Berlin on the first day of the World War was tremendous. Today, no excitement, no hurrahs, no cheering, no throwing of flowers, no war fever, no war hysteria. There is not even any hate for the French and British—despite Hitler’s various proclamations . . . accusing the “English warmongers and capitalistic Jews” of starting this war.3


  • 1 : Doris L. Bergen, War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust, 3rd ed. (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016), 130.
  • 2 : Max von der Grün, Howl Like the Wolves: Growing Up in Nazi Germany (New York: William Morrow, 1980), 173–74.
  • 3 : William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934–1941 (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002), 201. Reproduced by permission of Don Congdon Associates, Inc.

Connection Questions

  1. How do you account for the reactions in Max von der Grün’s village to news of Germany’s invasion of Poland?
  2. In what ways do Max von der Grün’s and William Shirer’s accounts of the outbreak of the war differ? How does the response of German people to this outbreak of war differ from the response at the beginning of World War I described in Chapter 3 (see reading, War Fever in Vienna)?

Related Content


The Night of Hitler's Triumph

Read firsthand accounts of the day that Hitler took office as chancellor of Germany in 1933. 


The "New Germany" on the Olympic Stage

Discover how the Nazis used the 1936 Summer Olympics as an opportunity to showcase German society to the world.


The United States Enters World War II

Examine the history of the United States' entrance into World War II following the attack on Pearl Harbor.


Crisis in Czechoslovakia

Consider why Hitler's demand for the Sudetenland evolved into an international crisis, and evaluate the resulting agreement forged by Hitler, Chamberlain, and Daladier.

Search Our Global Collection

Everything you need to get started teaching your students about racism, antisemitism and prejudice.