This audio series shares voices from the Facing History community to help promote critical thinking about the dangers of indifference and the importance of civic participation. This page contains a list of all of our audio educator resources. Listen to Facing History audio here.

Featured Audio: Do You Take the Oath?

After German President Paul von Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934, Adolf Hitler combined the offices of president and chancellor to become Fuhrer, Reich Chancellor and Chief of the Armed Forces. Prior all German soldiers were required to take an oath of allegiance to the German state and president. From this point soldiers took a new oath swearing allegiance to the Fuhrer alone. But soldiers were not the only ones required to take this new oath. This audio reading recounts one German worker's decision to take or ignore the oath of allegiance to the Fuhrer and the dilemmas he faced in this decision.

Talaat and the Limits of Diplomacy

American Ambassador Henry Morgenthau recounts a discussion with the Ottoman Interior Minister Talaat in which he protested the plight of the Armenians.

Following Orders

In December 1916, Lieutenant Said Ahmed Mukhtar al-Ba’aj, an Ottoman officer, and Arab Muslim soldier who defected to the Russian Army testified about his role in the deportation of Armenians from Trebizond and Erzerum.

The German Connection

Enver, Ottoman Minister of War served as military attache to Berlin prior to the coup when he became one of the triumvirate to seize power in 1913. Afterward, German-Ottoman military cooperation became official policy. Several officials discuss the "liquidation" and deportation of the Armenians.

Elizabeth Eckford: In Her Own Words

After the Federal Judge ordered integration in Little Rock, Arkansas, the "Little Rock Nine" prepared for their first day at Central High School. Governor Orval Faubus, in defiance of the order, called out the Arkansas National Guard. The night before school opened, he announced: "Units of the National Guard have been and are now being mobilized with the mission to maintain or restore the peace and good order of this community. Advance units are already on duty on the grounds of Central High School." The NAACP arranged for the African American students to be escorted to school on the day after Governor Faubus's speech. One of the students, Elizabeth Eckford, could not be reached and was therefore not informed of the plan. This is her story.

The Letter From Moses Seixas to George Washington (1790)

On August 17th, 1790, Moses Seixas, an official of the Hebrew congregation in Newport, Rhode Island, delivered a letter to President George Washington, asking that the country accord respect and tolerance to all of its citizens, regardless of background and religious beliefs.

The Letter From George Washington to the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island

On August 21st, 1790, President George Washington wrote a letter to Moses Seixas and the Hebrew congregation of Newport, Rhode Island. Washington was responding to a letter from Seixas that expressed hope that the newly formed United States would accord respect and tolerance to all of its citizens. Washington’s response promised not only tolerance, but full liberty of conscience to all, regardless of background and religious beliefs. Use the side arrows to scroll between the two photos.

Race Improvement

By the late 1800's the populations in U.S cities in the United States had increased dramatically. More people were living amongst people who were different than themselves. Often such encounters caused people to blame others for their own misfortunes or for larger society ills. An English mathematcian, Francis Galton, sought to "solve" the problem of those deemed undesirable in this country in developing the pseudo-scientific theory of Eugenics--identifying and breeding the "best" traits in society. One of his biggest concerns was the supposed decline of intelligence because of the "breeding" between individuals deemed less intelligent. In 1904 he addresses this supposed problem in the following essay from "Nature" magazine.

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